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Lokiboy
Hero of the Soviet Union - 2018
Hero of the Soviet Union - 2018
Posts: 3435
Joined: Fri Apr 29, 2011 9:58 pm

"Best of" and "How to"

Post by Lokiboy » Sat Jun 22, 2013 7:53 am

Index -- Primary focus 2008 - 2013 Urals:
- General Information
- Clutch
- Clutch Rod
- Cylinders
- Carburator (jetting)
- Spark Plugs
- Electrical
- Wheels
- Final Drive
- Brakes
- Donut
- Sidecar
- Tear Down Front-end

"Best of information" derived from SS members - continuously updated - as of March 2018:
Added in General - break-in tips

** NOTE: In a few of the Topic Links, the good information is embedded within.
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

The unofficial Ural song by Troy R. Bennett: http://bennetttheredonethat.bangordaily ... t-a-moose/

1. GENERAL:

a. The Gospel: Billy G's website http://www.myural.com - How to fix nearly everything on the Ural
NOTE: The "unoffical Repair Manual" bike is a (I believe) 2002 Ural. Sections such as timing and Ignition may not apply to your year model

a-1. How to properly break-in a motorcycle: http://www.nandanmotors.com/running.html

a-2. http://cvkustoms.com - all sorts of great reference material for Urals and Denper

a-3. Review the "Sticky" videos - YOUTUBE, another excellent source of information

a-4. An excellent video on common motorcycle problems: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=wtAOBCjFl ... 8oYLlGFPFq

b. Quick Ural comparisons:
1) Retros are the most stable in corners, due to smaller (18") wheels and a lower sidecar than other models, giving the lowest center of gravity on Urals;
2) 1WD models have 19" wheels and the sidecar positioned higher than Retros, resulting in a higher center of gravity and slightly reduced stability compared to Retros;
3) 2WD models have 19" wheels and the sidecar positioned approx 6in. higher than 1WD models, again increasing COG and slightly reducing stability. 2WD models are by no means unsafe, but there may be less margin of error in handling tight corners at increased speeds

c. :!: CAUTION
With the ignition off, always kickstart a few times to make sure there is no hydro/vapor lock in the cylinder if your bike has been sitting for even a short period of time. If gas has gotten into the cylinder and you don't check first, using the electric starter will/can cause severe damage.

d. Fitting tightness: Snug, then 1/4 turn

e. U-Joint zerk fitting – 6mm x1 pitch
Note. Using a Lincoln 5803 Needle Nozzle enables you to grease the drive shaft U-Joint without having to remove the FD.

f. NGK BP7HS spark plugs. How to read the heat range: http://www.ngksparkplugs.com/pdf/DYK_HeatRanges.pdf

Note: "Plugs for the 2014 are BPR6HS - the BPR7HS are for 2013 & earlier Ural engines. The error in the owners book is the wrong plug heat range for the 2014 models was listed - the 6 is the correct for the 14 engines."

g. FD Gear Oil Level revised:
100ml (3.3oz) for 2wd models, and 90ml (3.0oz) for 1 wd models. JASON RAE; VP OF OPERATIONS AND PRODUCT SUPPORT
http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... in#p351734

h. Checking oil levels - from IMWA:

1) Final Drive -oil level should be checked with the dipstick treaded in.

2) Engine - check oil level with the dipstick not threaded.

i. Stock jets: Varies, but generally Main 122 and 40 idle/pilot jet. Most run with 1 shim on the needle (M3 washers - 0.5mm thickness)

j. Air/fuel screw factory turnout: 1 1/2 from soft-set. Soft-set: The air/fuel mixture-adjustment screw is turned very gently CW until you just meet resistance (soft-set), any further and you will damage the needle.

:idea: Ural’s Keihin OEM factory carbs have an "fuel" screw, e.g. CW/IN lean, CCW/OUT rich

k. Flywheel timing mark: The timing mark is the first mark w/"dot" next to it. The second mark is the TDC mark
-- How to manually determine and mark if timing marks are not on the flywheel:
http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=34090

l. Emergency starting:
** Symptom: Battery drained not enough to start the bike - needed materials: small pin/finishing nail, alligator clips, 9v battery
1) Key - off position
2) Ignition – on (red switch)
3) Alligator clip grasp pin/nail - insert where Yellow wire enters the Ducati CDI - attach other end to 9v positive terminal
4) Other alligator clip attach to 9v negative terminal and the other end to the frame (engine cooling fin)
5) Kick start engine
6) Turn on the key and disconnect 9v battery - allows the alternator to charge the battery.

m. How to adjust the neutral light. http://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=relmfu&v=qJeVDpqzo9s
:!: CAUTION: Over adjusting the neutral light: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGIVD0z ... ata_player

n. Torque Wrench: Recommend 3/8"

o. How to engage 2WD - Mr Cob's very detailed explanation: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=24892

:!: CAUTION: DO NOT FORCE THE SHIFT - NO NEED TO BEAT ON THE SHIFTER

Quick checklist dirived from text:

1) While moving
a) Back off the Throttle
b) Apply LIGHT pressure to the two wheel drive shifter
c) SLIGHTLY wiggle the handle bars from side to side, if needed - allows the two tires to come to a common speed for a smooth, easy, quiet and no parts breakage shift.

NOTE: No need to use the clutch - plays no part

2) Rig is at a standstill
a) Transmission in neutral
b) Roll the rig forward or backward - as you're rolling the rig...
c) Have the handle bars turned one way or the other
d) Apply slight pressure on the two wheel drive shifter

p. Gasoline: In the US three grades with about 87 (Regular), 89 (Mid-Grade) and 93 octance (Premium). Any of the grades will work in the Ural.

q. Getting the most out of a Ural:
1) Carb slide drill - free and easy to do...immediate improvement in throttle response http://www.youtube.com/embed/xqKsQzIFWqs
2) Drill the stock muffler baffles: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... ng+baffles (may require rejetting)
3) Free the cats - catalytic converters...probably the least impact, but helps
4) Many with stock set ups, have had great success with Gossie needles, they cost around $90 unless you can find a used set here for sale, again these are best for a stock, mostly stock set up.
NOTE: Many have experienced short service life with Gossie needles. Raceway has produced a titanium needle
5) Waking up your ural is achieved by moding the intake, exhaust, fuel flow and spark, so the next logical step is to look at one of the shop designed and custom manufactured DIY airboxes that flow air like nobody's business or go with a mod top or the new windmill MK-III.
6) DIY is not hard...i've done it and there are posts here from Mr. Cob, Freshbenz, windmill, argosey, Ccjon and yours truly on how to. most of these DIY airboxes can be assembled for around $80 to $150 depending on the box and the filter you choose. I'm testing the Windmill MK-III now and its easy to install maintain and tune the carb for it. It also has a true OE look to it. All higher flowing airboxes will require jetting changes...so get a set of 4 or 5 or 10 different sizes.
7) Free flow exhausts like a mod top or even other after market mufflers or other DIY mods that others have done help the engine breath and require jetting adjustments too.
8. Power arc - bought mine new in box and never installed from a friend for $200...best $200 I spent on the rig, but worth the $385 from raceway.

r. RPM and Max Gear Range for GU and Patrol Urals: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=30344
NOTE: Using a timing light, the RPMs should be around 800-1000 at idle

s. Ural splitter:
1) Disconnect the throttle cables from both carbs.
2) Remove the plastic cap from the splitter (the end that the single cable comes out of) Slide the internal metal piece as far up as you can and remove the cables.
3) Install the new cables.
4) Another option: Take off the gas tank. Then remove the cables all around because you'll need all the slack in the system to get it apart. Put it back in place with a computer tie. I relocated mine to the top car brace that;s just in front of where it was under the tank.

t. Air Hose alternative: John Deere sells a flexible rubber hose that gives a tight fit on the existing carb flanges. Rubber will stretch to go on fittings without ripping. Used regular hose clamps. Part # B35601, cost about $12.00 each.

u. Oil pan removal: Back the bolts out of the pan about a quarter inch so if it isn't already loose when it does it can rest on the bolt heads. Use something flat and thin to gently work the gasket from the metal surfaces if needed. You can do this with either the old or new gasket. RTV the gasket to the pan, use Chapstick on the motor side of the gasket. Makes it easy to service the pan removal since it will always come off with the pan.

v. Air filter inspection: Can remove filter by unscrewing the lid cover. Do yourself a big favor. While you have the cover off for the filter check/replacement, use some Permatex to glue the rubber gasket into place. You'll soon discover that the damn thing is nearly impossible to hold in position while trying to squeeze the cover back onto the top of the box. Using a little Permatex to hold it in place will save you a lot of cursing.

w. Lash - term often associated with the position or alignment of two moving pieces where they strike (mesh) as found in the FD - driveshaft (pinion gear) to axle (ring gear), the alternator to engine camshaft driven gear, and/or the valve lash (setting valve clearances)

x. Replacement key options - http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 10&t=31389

y. Fastner list: Standards for fasteners, metric and SAE (USA). SAE Grade-8 fasteners are equivalent to Metric Grade 10.8, SAE Grade-5 equivalent to Metric 8.8
http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 11&t=31605

z. Kick starter install: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=34295

a1. Float bowl screw size for CVK 32 (standard late model Ural carb): 4mm x 0.70 x 12-16mm

a2. Break in.

A) Engine:

- Can't go wrong following the break-in procedure in the owners manual
- No don't maintain any steady speed for more than a few minutes. Vary your speeds often.
- No don't run "aggressively up & down through all gears up to max speed" . Ride it normally shifting through the gears but not up to max speed. Keep your max speed/rpm goal about 50 mph. You want to stay away from upper power band rpm range. Vary your speeds often for the first few hundred km's (500?)

B) Rings:

If you only have new rings and cylinders (or a hone job) the rings will be seated and run-in within minutes. Drive the rig around somewhere where you aren't going to have to stop a lot...you want air flow over the cylinders (not idling). Once warm, pour the coals to it and run it through the gears up and down a few times. Hard. Coming down the gears you can be easy. On the way up, run it WOT.

This is not a engine "break-in" but a ring seating. Rings are finished in minutes. If you lolly gag the engine you'll glaze the cylinders and need to re-hone.

A new "engine run-in" is a compromise between rings & having to wear in gears and other turning parts. Cylinders and rings are a different animal.

You can run it like you stole it...once the engine has warmed up.

2. CLUTCH:

TIP: :idea: Clutch techniques: The NEW Ural clutch disks are MUCH better then the old ones but the problems is still that the Ural is NOT geared low enough for hard off road use. The trick to longer clutch life is to slip the clutch ONLY when needed, do NOT try to get through or over stuff by slipping the clutch doing so will burn it up. When starting out on steep hills spin the tire DON'T slip the clutch, use momentum to get you through or over obstacles, learn to "FAN" the clutch, install a vent in the top of the bell-housing, NEVER slip the clutch until you can smell it, if you can smell it or it smoke its already started to burn and your in the process of ruining the disks and all the other clutch components.

a. Indications the clutch might be going out:
1) Occasional 'warbling' sounds coming from the clutch while stopped...
2) Some 'clicking' from the clutch area whilst pushing the bike around the garage...
3) A slight change in the clutch engagement point from time to time...
4) Put into 1st or 2nd gear. If you can push the bike, then the clutch pads are going bad and need replacement.

b. Replacing/installing a clutch
1) Clutch replacement: http://redlegsrides.blogspot.com/2012/0 ... lutch.html
2) Ural Service - COB Clutch Part 1 of 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GItUngyMWQ
3) Ural Service - COB Clutch Part 2 of 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsbZ9IJrg0E
4) Coluralado's install: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=29096
5) Coluralado's how to separate the gearbox from the engine: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... eo#p349644

c) Clutch Vent: Ural Service - COB Clutch Vent http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYg9mh61-98

NOTE: Rivet heads towards the flywheel and the 'step' is towards the transmission. The pressure plate will go in only one way of course (with the recesses for the springs) and the cover plate (with its taper for the screws).

NOTE: Allen Head Flywheel bolts - 2011 and older: Holopaw carries Allen versus slotted bolts for 2011 and older bikes (not sure if anyother dealer does so?). For 2012, IMWA got rid of the slotted heads with Allen head, but went to a more common thread pitch that will not fit the older flywheels.

TIP: To align the springs to the pressure plate, What you do is mark a spot on the pressure plate tooth that is directly above one of the spring recesses. You mark the same tooth on the flywheel. Then when you install the pressure plate you just line up the two marks.

TIP: When installing new clutch parts... When the clutch assembly is apart, look at the splines on the flywheel, if there are any noticeable notches worn into them that will cause the floater disk to not move freely. You should be able to take the pressure plate and floater disk, align the male splines on the pressure plate and floater with the female splines on the flywheel and EASILY without any resistance drop the pressure plate and the floater into the flywheel and move them up and down the full lenght of the flywheel splines without any resistance, if it binds or won't move freely SOMETIMES you can dress the flywheel splines with a file to remove burrs that cause it to bind, sometimes the splines of the clutch disks themselves will wear notches on the transmission input shaft splines, if the disks do not move freely along the input shaft

TIP: Grinding noise - With the starter removed you can inspect the flywheel teeth and clutch screws. Use the kick start lever to slowly turn the flywheel around and check condition of teeth/screws

d) $10 clutch alignment tool: Kingsborne Wire Works, INC http://www.kingsborne.com/ in San Marcos CA. Tool is marked as "Volvo 1800 Series 1962-1968 (Tool #41)

e) :idea: Adjustment to transmission shift level throw limits (video within the thread). http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=36708 and a practical application demo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQ4P8R2x_bE

f) Determine clutch teeth wear: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=33502

g. Clutch Cable Adjustment Procedure:
1) Set clutch handlebar lever adjustment somewhere near the full in position. (Screwing this adjustment out tightens (reduces) play
at the clutch lever.
2) At the other end of the clutch cable, set the clutch arm adjuster to its mid point.
3) At the transmission mount adjuster (sheath adjuster), set it so the clutch arm can just barely be moved away from the plunger.
4) There should be a little slack in the cable between the clutch arm and transmission mount adjuster.
5) Now go back to the clutch handlebar lever adjustment. Adjust this to where you have about 1/4" play in the handle before it starts pulling the clutch cable.

3. CLUTCH ROD:

a. Clutch actuating rod failure and replacement: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 7&start=30

b. Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivmhX9v ... ata_player

c. Alternate Clutch Rod O-Ring: 16/16x1, 1/16z1/8, #95 O-Ring, Stock No. 35875B - any auto store

TIPs: Ways to install the clutch rod into the clutch plate:
- :idea: Cut a small slot (Dremel tool and cutting wheel) on the rod end that faces the back of the bike so you can put a small screwdriver into it. Incert the rod and turn the screwdriver until the rod slips into the clutch plate - takes about 20 seconds and works perfectly.
- Using the clutch rod parts for leverage: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgwaQwB ... ata_player
- 3" of hose that will fit snug on the release rod, and split the last 1" for a tab. Slip in an allen wrench that fits close but loose. Slide them into the transmission, press in with the allen wrench and rotate the release rod with the tab on the hose. when it pops in place, hold it in place with the allen wrench and pull out the hose with the tab

TIP: Bevel the square tip slightly to allow the rod to more easily slip into the clutch plate

d. Indications clutch rod is failing/o-ring
1) Bike continues to move when the clutch is in
2) Continually needing to adjust the clutch cable where eventually clutch lever arm is just about up against the speedo cable junction at the tranny.
3) Oil seeps from clutch actuating arm

EMERGENCY FIX: Throw out bearing (aka clutch bearing) "emergency" fix: Replace with two greased US nickels. About the same width and radius. Gentle on the clutch, neutral at stops, will get you home.

4. CYLINDERS:

a. Head torque – 30-35ft/lbs Engine at TDC for the side you're working. X pattern. Cold engine. Recheck valve clearances

b. Studs pulling out
- Mr. COB's Time-Sert installation here:
http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =time+sert

- Coluralado's thread on cylinder stud Time-Sert repair:
http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =belmetric

TIP: valve clearance continually falling out of adjustment, this is often an indication that the cylinder stud thread is pulling out of the case. A stripped case thread can be easily verified with a torque wrench. If the head nut won't get to spec, you've .got a problem.

c. Ural one cylinder failure (suddenly drops to 1/2 power) diagnosis/repair: from easiest/fastest to harder.

** While still rolling:
1) check if out of fuel (flip to reserve tank), check if fuel filters look clogged (change 'em if in doubt)
2) look at your exhaust pipes: is one glowing red? does it glow more when under load (hill climbing/accelerating) ... and less when the load diminishes? if so ... then that's the side doing all the work. if you can, shut 'er down ... if you are gonna be stuck forever, you might be able to limp home if you take it easy.

** While engine is running (before shutting down):
3) check for broken throttle cable; - check the throttle cable at the splitter to ensure proper seating and function
4) check if plugs are booted properly.
5) check if air hoses are connected properly & are tight

** Shut 'er down:
6) if you aren't already sure - pull 1 plug boot & try to restart ... once yer gettin' the engine to fire on 1 good cylinder, then ya know which side to concentrate on
7) pull the plugs: inspect for lean, rich, wet, fouled
a) if the plug is wet then you don't need to check the carb 'cause it has gas.
b) if the plug was dry - drain carb bowls (to eliminate possible water in the fuel)
8. check for spark: pull plug, put boot back on it & lay it on cylinder. put bike in neutral, move red switch to run position, & press starter. you want a bright blue, solid spark to appear from the plug.
9) roadside compression test (w/ your thumb over the spark plug hole)
10) swap spark plugs &/or spark plug wires
11) inspect the air filter & make sure air hoses are tightly connected & clean (no mouse nests, etc)

d. Compression test - Done with warm engine - New bike should read approx 150 psi
1) Remove spark plugs
2) Attach gage - thread into the spark plug hole
3) Throttle - WOT
4) Turn on ignition or kick start until the gage's reading stops
5) Should be within 10% of each other
6) Quick roadside check; put thumb over the sparkplug hole, compression should be enough to push the thumb away

NOTE: over time, ie. miles, the compression may decrease. No set number but above 110 should be ok. The key is that both cylinders remain within 10% of each other.

TIP: Teaspoon of oil and dribble into the cylinder via the spark plug opening. Cycle the engine to move the oil around. Re-accomplish the compression test. If the pressure increases, then the oil sealed the rings and you'll know that's the problem. If the pressure remained the same than it could be the gasket or valves.

NOTE: From the Ural 650 manual (applicable to a 750cc) on oil consumption: "Normal oil consumption should not exceed 1 pint / 250cc per 200 km. Rising oil consumption may indicate worn rings, worn valve guides or leaking engine seals."

e. Compression Test Altitude Compensation Factors:

Altitude/multiply by
500 / 0.987
1500 / 0.960
2500 / 0.933
3500 / 0.907
4500 / 0.880
5500 / 0.853
6500 / 0.826
7500 / 0.800
8500 / 0.773

f. Bad piston or rings indications. Symptoms are rough running and significant amount of oil in the air cleaner ( much more than usual).

g. Leak-down test: A leak down test is performed after low and/or varying results (more than 10%) from a compression test
http://www.howtomotorcyclerepair.com/ho ... diy-build/

So what is considered acceptable leakage?
Leakage under 5% indicates engine in excellent condition
Leakage up to 15% indicates engine in good condition
Leakage above 15% indicates that engine components are worn

h. Dieseling: Run-on or dieseling is a type of detonation. Something is getting too hot; carbon deposit, exhaust valve seat, plug tip....causing the detonation. You must figure out why. Generally the problem is due too the timing being too advanced, not using the proper octane, too lean a mixture, too hot a plug, too tight a valve, not enough air over the cylinders, idle too rich ...I'm sure there's more - typical causes, and solutions:

1) Quick bandaid ; allow the engine to run a few seconds before turning off
2) Idle too high, decrease idle slightly.
3) Too rich, clean air filter, turn in air screw, reduce jet size.
4) Octane too low, use next higher grade.
5) Carbon build up, clean by injecting Seafoam or water.
6) Tight valve, adjust them.
7) Intake leak, fix it.

i. Removing the lifters: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0a8OSp2Gti8

5. CARBURATORS:

a. What impacts the carbs:
1) Idle screw (on the side of the carb) - how much fuel is getting to the pilot jet at idle
2) Air/fuel mixture screw - idle to 1/8 (and whenever you come off throttle) - how much air is mixing with the fuel
3) Pilot jet - idle to about 1/4 throttle (and whenever you come off throttle) - regulates the amount of fuel passing to the cylinders
4) Needle - 1/4 to 3/4
5) Main jet - 3/4 to WOT
TIP: Air/fuel screw and pilot jet work together - think of the air/fuel as refined setting & pilot jet is rough setting
:idea: Rotate the throttle until you get resistance. Place a paint mark on the throttle and on the housing (a reference mark). Rotate to WOT and place another mark on the throttle handle, then estimate the 1/2 way point and add a third mark. Now, you will be able to visually estimate what part of the carburetor you are using when you experience any problems and you'll see where you spend most of your throttle time.

Insight: What does jetting and shimming hope to accomplish? http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 69#p558664

b. References
1) Very detailed: http://bonniemods.info/manuals/JBTuningNotesv6a.pdf
2) Simpler text explained: http://justkdx.dirtrider.net/printcarbtuning.html
3) Outstanding video: How to adjust the jets on motorcycle carburetors (main jets and needle). http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=y836ZPjvoMI
4) Dwight Rahl's CVK carb re-jet website - extremely helpful! http://www.dwightrahl.com/carb-jetting.html

c. Keihin carburetors are constant velocity carburetors. In a nut shell - A CV carb uses pressure differential diaphragm to do the job. Therefore, when you go to a higher altitude, the lower air pressure opens the slide/needle less than it would at sea level for a given throttle opening.
1) A CV carburetor ONLY impacts the NEEDLE (approx 1/4 throttle - approx 3/4 throttle). THAT is where the CV carb "adjusts" for differences in air pressure. When air is less dense, it will create less force raising the needle less out of the main - delivering less fuel.
2) The pilot and or air/fuel screw and main jets may still need to be adjusted.
-- For example, there may be a noticeable performance drop, such as when coming off idle at the higher altitudes - adjusting the air/fuel mixture screw (CW to lean it) should minimize the impact for a short-term fix.
3) CV carbs most effective between sea level and 6,000'.
4) :idea: Ural’s Keihin OEM factory carbs have an "fuel" screw, e.g. CW/IN lean, CCW/OUT rich

FYI: 1) Generally, if the "screw" is on the intake side of carb it is an air screw - CW/IN cuts off air to mixture and results in a rich mix, CCW/OUT allows more air to the mixture which gives a leaner mix. 2) If the "screw" is located on the out flow side of carb it is a fuel screw (URAL) - CW/IN cuts off fuel which equals leaner mix, CCW/OUT gives more fuel which means richer mix.

NOTE: Changes to the air filter and/or exhaust for improved performance generally increase airflow and thus lean out the engine.

NOTE: Soft-set: The air/fuel mixture-adjustment screw is turned very gently CW (lean) until you just meet resistance (soft-set), any further and you will damage the needle. Factory setting is 1-1/2 turns CCW from seated.

NOTE: :idea: Rejetting can be confusing so keep it simple, do not change more than 1 thing at a time. Do not jump more than 1 size at a time

d. Always cover the basics before rejetting:
1) Air filter: Always make sure the air filter is clean before adjusting the jets.
2) Float height: Before changing any jetting parts always check the float height. See "Float Bowl" below
3) Spark plug: Always rejet with a fresh plug, the old plug will have color from how the engine ranbefore the rejetting process. A weak spark will make the engine run rich
4) Compliance fittings (fit/cracks) & air hoses are properly seated
5). Gas should be fresh ( not siting the tank for a few weeks)

e. Air/fuel mixture screw: Idle Drop Procedure
1) Bring the bike up to operating temperature - enrichener is off.
2) Air/Fuel mixture screw (under the carb): From seated, CCW (enrich the mixture) until the RPMs are maxed and no longer change based on turning the screw.

NOTE: If the screw ends up more than around 3-1/2 turns out from fully seated, the spring tension on the screw is insufficient and there is a chance the screw can vibrate out.

NOTE: Only need to do the Idle Drop Procedure on one carb to establish setting for both - recommend a carb sync after settings are determined.

NOTE: If the bike gets overheated during this procedure, you will need to let the bike cool off a bit and try again. If you are already at operating temps when you start this procedure, running more than about 5 minutes while trying to get the setting correct will make the bike too hot. If the bike is too hot when you set the idle mixture, the final setting will be too lean

TIP: Quick Rule of Thumb: Temps drop below 70 degrees enrich the air/fuel mixture by approx 1/2 turn CCW. Example: Set the mixture screw at 1.5 for summer and 2 turns out in cooler temps.

f. Idle screw (side of carb): From your current setting - turn CW until the engine stumbles, then CCW (count the turns) until the engine stumbles - the correct number of turns should be in the middle between the two stumbling points.

NOTE: Using a timing light, the RPMs from adjusting the idle screw should be around 800-1000 at idle

g. Pilot Jet determination: (applying results from the Idle Drop Procedure) The screw should be set at least 1/2 turn out from fully seated, and no more than 3 turns out. If it is less than 1/2 turn out from fully seated when it runs best, you should install a smaller pilot jet (allows less fuel into the cylinders) and perform the idle drop procedure again. If it is more than 3 turns out, you should install a larger pilot jet and perform the idle drop procedure again.

h. Main jet and Needle shim determination - "Chop Plug" testing (see text and video)
To get an accurate indication you want to look down inside the plug where the porcelain insulator emerges from the steal body of the spark plug. Ideally you should see a ring of light brown/tan at the lower 1/4 of the porcelain. White is lean and you’ll need to install the next richer main jet( larger number / add a shim ) and do another plug reading. A dark brown to black ring is too rich and you’ll need to install the next leaner main jet ( smaller number / remove a shim)

NOTE: If engine still stumbles/rough after testing in the 1/4 to 3/4 range, check that the needle diaphragm's spring is not broken, or the is a tear in the diaphragm itself.

i. Altitude and Temperature correction chart (for mains and pilot jets): http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... correction
The air pressure outside the engine rushes into the engine to fill the low pressure cell in the cylinder. As it enterers the engine through the carburetor, it gets fuel added to it. If the outside air pressure is lower, less pressure is available force air into the cylinder. Combine less pressure with less oxygen in the air, but the same amount of fuel being delivered, and you have a rich condition.

Rule of thumb - from the chart: For Main Jet (assumes optimum performance at around 70-85F degrees and at sea level)
Above approx 4,000' - down one jet size
Above approx 7,000' - down one jet size
Temps 50F and below - up one jet size
Temps 32F and below - up one jet size

j. Typical Lean Conditions:
1) Poor acceleration; the engine feels flat.
2) The engine won't respond when the throttle is snapped open, but it picks up speed as the throttle is closed. (A too-large main jet also mimics this symptom.)
3) The engine runs hot, knocks, pings and overheats.
4) The engine surges or hunts when cruising at part-throttle.
5) Popping or spitting through the carb occurs when the throttle is opened. Or popping and spitting occurs through the pipe on deceleration with a closed throttle.
6) The engine runs better in warm weather, worse in cool.
7) Performance gets worse when the air filter is removed.

TIP: Quick Running Lean check: With a warm engine, you can identify a lean condition with a blip of the throttle... If it hangs a bit high before settling down to idle, its too lean....richen it a 1/4 turn at a time till that stops and you're good to go....

k. Typical Rich Conditions
1) Engine acceleration is flat and uneven and loses that "crisp" feel.
2) The engine "eight-strokes" as it loads up and skips combustion cycles.
3) The engine's idle is rough or lumpy, and the engine won't return to idle without "blipping" the throttle.
4) The throttle needs to be open continuously to maintain acceleration.
5) Black, sooty plugs, a sooty exhaust pipe
6) Black smoke from the tailpipe that stinks of unburned fuel.
7) Poor fuel economy.
8. The engine works better when cold. Performance falls off as it warms

l. Vacuum leaks (compliance fittings) conditions:
1) Loss of power.
2) Runs better with choke on, and in some cases the only way it will run.
3) Erratic idle. You’ll never be able to set the idle. Sometimes it will idle higher or lower.
4) Runs better at higher RPM.
5) Sounds “boggy”.
6) Do not mistake vacuum leaks for out of synch carbs. Never attempt to synch carbs without verifying that there are no vacuum leaks.

m. Float bowl:
1) How to check motorcycle float heights http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=PHuB1lyagK ... re=related
2) Float Height: Use a piece of clear tubing which can attach to bottom of fuel bowl drain. Hold tubing up to side of carb like a "J". Open drain screw. Level should be at seam of bowl/carb body +\- a mm or two.

n. Carb: Needle Diaphragm won’t seat properly:
1) Put it in the sun and let it air out. As the gas gasses off the diaphragm it will conform to proper shape
2) or, smear a little silicone grease or petroleum jelly on the diaphragm or in the carb groove. Press the rubber into the groove & it stays there

NOTE: Disassembled the carb *before* shooting compressed air into the carb - can damage the float assembly

o. Carb needles.
Regarding the 2 needles in the CVK. There are two needles, one is connected to the slide and the other is operated by the float assembly. The float neddle is rubber tipped and will get a groove in it after many years of use and the affects of E10. The slide needle is "silver" and all metal and meters fuel relative to slide position. Heindl offers rebuild kits for the CVK which include new float needles and they have the float assemblies as well if it is broken. Do NOT blow air into the carb to clear it as this will damage the float & alter the float setting which is very delicate. Take it apart and inspect the rubber tip, if it is worn or has dirt embedded in it replace it, you cannot really clean it properly and it will leak anyways.

p. Ordering carburator replacement parts:
http://www.bikebandit.com/houseofmotorc ... 7#sch73211

NOTE:
GENUINE KEIHIN jets will have a "K star" stamping on them.
Keihin "round head" 99101-393-XXX - Main jet
Keihin "round head" N424-25B-XXX - Pilot jet aka slow jet

6. SPARK PLUGS:

a. Spark plug: NGK BP7HS spark plugs

b. Spark plug gap: Recommended Gap 0.040 (1.0 - 1.02mm)

c. Spark plug test:
1) How to check for Spark Plug Fire (in any engine) http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=PHuB1lyagK
2) Checking Spark-plug: You can check for spark pretty easily by removing the spark plug from the cylinder head. Leave the spark plug wire attached and ground the spark plug's electrode to the cylinder head by holding it against the metal surface (Insulate your hand). Then crank the bike over and see if you get a consistent fat spark.

d. Carbon fouling - most common spark plug problem - causes:
1) Continuous low speed driving and/or short trips
2) Spark plug heat range too cold
3) Air-fuel mixture too rich
4) Reduced compression and oil usage due to worn piston rings / cylinder walls
5) Over-retarded ignition timing
6) Ignition system deterioration - weak spark from coil and/or spark plug wires
7) Carb Float is sticking
8. Airfilter: dirty or over oiled (restricting airflow)

7. ELECTRICAL:

a. Battery:
1) 12.5 Volts - fully charged, at rest.
2) Running - approx 13.5 - 14.2 Volts - couple of volts higher or lower indicate a bad alternator/rectifier

NOTE: A 12v battery will lose approx 1% of capacity for everyday not charged.

:!: WARNING: Never install a fuse with a rating higher than indicated. Can short/melt wires, can cause a fire.

b. References
1) Very detailed explanation how to troubleshoot
http://kz400.com/Mark%20Shively/Electri ... 0fuses.doc
2) Practical demos how to troubleshoot and read wiring diagram
- http://www.themotorcyclemedic.com/bd-1.html
- Coluralado's sticky: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=29605
3) Blowing fuses - how to troubleshoot: http://kz400.com/Mark%20Shively/Electri ... 0fuses.doc

Trivia: "Source/power" side of connections are female (receptacles). The "load" side of a connection is male (plug)

c. Device/bike not working - always check
1) Battery - fully charged, good connections to terminals
2) Fuses - check with Multimeter
3) Ground wire(s) - from neg battery terminal / from device to frame
4) Device - lose wire, bad bulb etc.
5) ****BIGGIE - corroded connections

TIP: Blowing fuses - 90% caused by wire touching metal and or pinched wire

d. Engine not starting with electric starter. If you hear a click(ing) sound you are most likely hearing the starter relay energizing. This would mean that the 12V through the kill switch and the ground through the starter switch are making it to the start relay and the relay is energizing. (If no clicking, troubleshoot between the killswitch and starter relay)

1. Put the bike in neutral.
2. Pull the small wire off of the starter solenoid.
3. Jumper the blade terminal on the starter solenoid to the battery +12V post. What happens?

If starter engages and turns over engine, the starter and solenoid are fine. The problem would be that 12V is not getting from the start relay down to the blade contact on the starter solenoid

e. Ducati ignition parts location:
1) The interrupter (rotor) mounted on the end of the camshaft under the engine front cover
2) The coil is mounted on the frame member under the gas tank just above the front cover of the engine.
3) The CDI is located somewhere underneath the seat near the battery. Ural has changed the exact mounting location three times so far. The first location it was bolted to the rear fender on the same bolt that holds the start relay. The second location was underneath the front seat to the right of the battery. The third location is underneath the seat to the left of the battery, just under the removable side cover.

for. Hall Sensor - weakest part of the ignition system mounted on the end of the camshaft under the engine front cover
1) Engine runs for 10-30 secs than dies
2) No spark

TIP: Put a dab of RTV sealant where the wires exit the engine front cover - water can short or interfere with the Hall Sensor

f. Relays: Below the seat are two relays - start relay and headlight relay - can be swapped, if needed, for troubleshooting (ed-need to confirm year modle applicable to)

TIP: Different ignition systems and diagrams - see 1-a

g. Flashers:
1) How to modify for four-way flashers: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... er#p382828
2) LED replacement considerations, etc. : http://sovietsteeds.com/forums/viewtopic.php?t=9628
3) Location: To get to the flasher...turn the handlebars fully to the left. Look in from the back of the right side....the flasher relay should be staring you in the face

h. Wiring the spotlight to turnoff with the ignition: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 11&t=35623

8. WHEELS

a. Rear axle install:
1) When I had my FD out then re-installed it, I loosely tightened the FD bolts onto the swingarm, then slid the axle in and put the washer and castle nut on and snugged it down. THEN I tightened the FD bolts.
2) Further refinement if desired: Better procedure is to leave the FD loose and tighten it down bit by bit just until it comes in contact with the swingarm. Now measure any gap on any of the FD bolts inside of the swingarm. Pull the FD off again and use broad washers or spacers to make up the gap. Ron suggested a procedure that didn't work for me (I have 1WD) but might for you: with the wheel and brakes off and without the dustcap on, slide the axle in and push it all the way through the FD until the larger part is "pointing" at the left-side axle hole it just came through. FD should be firmly against the swingarm, but not torqued. If the axle is pointing somewhere other than at the hole, you're seeing the misalignment. So if it needs to come up, shim up appropriately; if forward, shim in the back, etc. With 1WD you only have two bolts to play with, but with 2WD you have four potential places to shim. The object is to have the axle insert directly through the FD with the FD exerting *no* pressure on the axle.

NOTE: Another opinion: I had tightened the axles for the front and rear wheels too much Mick said. You should be able to spin the dust cover, and only feel a slight resistance. The dust covers shouldn't spin freely mind you, but you should be able to move them. The sidecar wheel on the other hand, you can tighten down tight. Just FYI. Should be noted, this came from a mechanic at VT Cycles (I believe) - others have posted that the dustcover should not spin.

b. Spoke repair: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQW4mMz ... ata_player

NOTE: Spokes for 19" -- Disk: 180mm; Drum: 140mm

c. How to remove/replace a tire: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RaUm7qyCxE&app=desktop

9. FINAL DRIVE

a. Ural spacer *EMERGENCY* FD locked up: Put bike on center stand. restrain the center stand in the forward position using a strap. Loosen pinch bolt. Remove axle nut cotter pin. Remove axle nut. Remove axle nut washer. Remove axle. remove wheel. INSIDE the final drive where the axle nut washer was is a bushing. Pull it out with your finger or screwdriver? Put this bushing inside the final drive where the wheel hub splines mate to the final drive. we are using this bushing a s a spacer to keep the splines from engaging. thus the wheel will turn even if the final drive is locked. replace wheel with bushing in place replace axle thru swing arm , washer, wheel ,bushing, final drive , washer, nut. tighten nut loosely tighten pinch bolt to hold axle from coming loose. Bike freewheel? out of gear? This is as I understand it! Hope it helps. This is good enough to get out of the woods. don't travel long distances this way.

b. FD u-joint phase alignment

:!: WARNING: Improperly aligning the u-joints may cause premature wear and failure

http://youtu.be/gmV4qwLfOMY

The video is deceiving because of the over emphasized angles between the two drive shafts. However, ANY out of phase speed differential between the rotating speeds of the out of phase drive-shaft is sent directly to the ring and pinion gears in the final drive, this is NOT a good thing. Its not so much within reason the angle the joints operate in, its the proper phasing of the joints that is critical.

c. FD ring gear replacement bolts for 2010 (I believe) and older: 10.9 hex head M8x20x1.25 - use red locktite to secure the bolts.

d. Ring gear bolt torque - Torque all bolts to 22 ft-lbs in a cross pattern

e. Scott C's FD seal removal and replacements: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=41729

10. BRAKES

a. Using the front brake in reverse: The brake torque arm can only take high loads in one direction, going backwards fast and hitting the front brake HARD can damage the arm & mounts. Holding position on a hill or using it lightly while going in reverse slowly should not be a problem.

b. Bleed Brakes manually

1) Place a box end wrench on the nipple down at the caliper, open end wrench will work, but a box end tends to 'stay in place' better.

2). Place a tight-fitting section of clear plastic tubing over the business end of the nipple, put the free end of the plastic tubing into a catch jar.

3) Put a bit of clean brake fluid in the catch jar, enough to cover the free end of the plastic tube (ya don't want to accidentally suck air into the caliper)

4) Remove the cover from the master cylinder reservoir (cover any nearby painted pieces as brake fluid eats paint)...

5) If it's been awhile since you changed your fluid (over a year) remove as much of the old brake fluid as possible -- use a CLEAN rag as a sponge... or dip a straw into the fluid, plug the other end of the straw with yer finger and withdraw a bit of fluid -- repeat.

6) Fill the master cylinder reservoir with brake fluid out of a new, previously unopened bottle.

7) Pump the brake lever till you get some resistance, watch the bottom of the reservoir to see if you have a trapped bubble acting as a stopper--if you do, tap the side of the reservoir with the hard plastic handle of a screw driver until the bubble dislodges itself (it would be beneficial to wear eye protection as it's possible to get a small geyser from the drain--brake fluid in yer eye hurts).

8. When you get resistance, keep the tension on the brake lever and loosen the nipple an eighth of a turn -- you should see fluid/bubbles entering the clear plastic tube.

9) Immediately close the nipple and repeat the pump/tension/release process til you get a continuous stream of clean brake fluid (no bubbles) in the clear plastic tubing.

10) Each time you pump the brake lever, make sure the fluid level in the reservoir is at least half full... if you suck air into the reservoir drain you will have to start over.

11) Once you have all the air out of the system, fill the reservoir to the top... push the rubber bellows back into the cap (bellows should be flat inside the cap) replace the cap/screws.

c. Reverse bleed brake technique: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBk00597EyE

d. Replacing Front brake pads: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=19936

NOTE: The brass dust cover has an arrow on it. That arrow points towards the bike/engine looking at it from the front of the bike.

e. Drum brake shoe alignment - two different methods - both improve braking:

1) Coluralado's sticky: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... =5&t=29593

2) http://sovietsteeds.com/forums/viewtopi ... it=+arcing

f. Break lever and brake master cylinder rebuild and cleaning: http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 1&start=15

11. DONUT:

a. Make sure the donut is properly installed, factory specs are between 1mm to 6mm( 0.25inch) gap between donut and drive shaft "fork" base.

b. Symptoms:
1) I recently started getting some vibration starting at about 80kph and getting progressively worse the faster I go. I think I may have found the culprit in my drive shaft donut. Today when I got home from work I put the bike in gear and rolled it back and forth. There was considerable give in the donut as resistance was applied. Mind you, it was a hot bike so the rubber donut was relatively warm. I had never performed this test before, so I don't know how much give there is supposed to be. The donut isn't pretty by any means, but it's not all torn up either.
2) Other symptoms: noticed a thump or grind just when i let the clutch out while in gear - more like a bump

c. How much give is normal? Ans: Grab it (as much as you can) and try to twist and wiggle it. Any more than a mm or two and especally if it doesn't flex back, and yeah thats probably your problem.

d. Flexible coupling replacement (donut): Things you will need. Long pry bar. Slippery stuff to put the new on one. and patience. Yes you are going to need to pull the rear wheel and FD off. Not as hard as you think just take your time and put parts in labeled boxes. Take pictures as you go so you can go back and look at what it looked like. Next I found that I needed to take the rear shocks off to get enough room to replace the doughnut. Also not to hard to do. Then while holding the swingarm in it's highest possible location (I used a ratchet strap for this. Use the pry bar to pry the driveshaft off the doughnut. Move the driveshaft out of the way and then use the prybar to pry the doughnut off the output shaft one pin at a time as you will need to swing the doughnut around to clear the driveshaft. Yup there isn't much room in there. The reverse is how to put the new one on. Grease up the holes with something slippery as those holes are very tight. (ed - not positive what year model this is for?)

12. SIDE CAR:

- Removing the side car to work on the engine: The sidecar was very easy to remove. Unplugged the wiring connector up at the front, unfastened the bands around the rubber boot at the 2wd drive shaft and slid it onto the drive shaft, put a couple of scissors jacks under the sidecar frame, unbolted the tops of the diagonal struts, loosened up the two claws at the bottom, and just rolled the bike away from it. Literally a 20-30 minute job working by myself.

TIP: You can work on the right side of the engine to change the right piston, rings, insert new posts etc. by just pulling the top strut bolts and leaning the bike over on the engine guard. So if you just have to have more room, pulling the top strut bolts will give you plenty.

13. FRONT END DISASSEMBLY : http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 11&t=21110
Last edited by Lokiboy on Tue Mar 13, 2018 2:21 pm, edited 212 times in total.
2011 Gear Up - "Erika"
Yorktown, VA

Mains: 127, Idle: 40, Needle: 1 shim
MKIII air filter
80,000 km and counting

gobium
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Re: "Best of" a computation of knowledge

Post by gobium » Sat Jun 22, 2013 8:19 am

:thumbsup: :thumbsup: :thumbsup: :cheers:

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Re: "Best of" a computation of knowledge

Post by Dwight » Sat Jun 22, 2013 9:51 am

Great job. Lokiboy! This is a very, very useful post!

Dwight
'05 Tourist "Serenity" (We never forget our first...)
'93 Solo (She's gone West, but she'll never be forgotten...)
Ridin' the back roads of Apex and Holly Springs, NC
Visit my website: http://www.dwightrahl.com

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TheWildOne
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Re: "Best of" a computation of knowledge

Post by TheWildOne » Sat Jun 22, 2013 7:13 pm

I agree - could be very useful.
I would suggest adding a "thorough" index though.

K 2

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Lokiboy » Wed Jun 26, 2013 1:19 pm

I've added an index and information from the 1 cylinder fail - symptoms and diagnose post. Will continually add posts and threads.
2011 Gear Up - "Erika"
Yorktown, VA

Mains: 127, Idle: 40, Needle: 1 shim
MKIII air filter
80,000 km and counting

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Albuquralque » Wed Jun 26, 2013 1:32 pm

Great info.
"Put a little gravel in your travel"

Darrell - Albuquralque
2014 Patrol - Babe the Blue Ox
EFI Map OR 1.02
Throttle Body Vacuum Ports
K&N Air Filter
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Previous Urals Owned: 2004 Wolf, 2006 Tourist, 2006 Patrol (TOW), 2006 Patrol (TOM)

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by reduc » Fri Jun 28, 2013 1:30 pm

:thumbsup: Awesome job on this! Moderators, this needs a sticky.
Jason
2010 Gear Up (OD Green) http://www.sovietsteeds.com/forums/view ... 11&t=22029
Windmill MKIII airbox
Full Mod-Top exhaust
Gossie needles with the clips in the 2nd & 3rd slots from the top (out of 6)
Slides drilled
45 idle jets
132.5 main jets
Mixture screw 2 1/4 turns out
Mr Cob skid plate

2004 BMW R1150GS
1972 Moto Guzzi Eldorado
1965 Triumph TR-6 S/R

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by LaCabra3 » Sun Jun 30, 2013 11:22 pm

I put this link in my "Favorites" folder
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Better to have it and not need it than need it and not have it.

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Yamaller » Tue Jul 02, 2013 5:38 pm

T-H-A-N-K Y-O-U. seriously.

Sticky, sticky, sticky!!!
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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Lokiboy » Fri Aug 02, 2013 4:58 am

Added: emergency starting procedures, an Electrical section and reformated for easier use.
2011 Gear Up - "Erika"
Yorktown, VA

Mains: 127, Idle: 40, Needle: 1 shim
MKIII air filter
80,000 km and counting

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Thierry » Fri Aug 16, 2013 11:51 pm

Oh wow !!! Thanks a lot. Great ressource for newbie like me :bow:
BMW R75/5 1972
Ural Retro 2009

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by a1930ford » Sat Aug 17, 2013 6:48 am

Just a suggestion, but you may want to consider adding a link or something noted about reverse brake bleeding at the brakes section as shown in attached video. It is an easy way to bleed the brakes. #9 on Spark Plugs has typo as Spark pulgs.




Good info for Best of and How to.
"There is a reason Dogs do not live as long as we do. They are our resume in Heaven."
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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by RickH » Sat Aug 17, 2013 9:35 am

Needs to be "stickied"!
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2011 Gear Up - "Vasili"

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Re: "Best of" and "How to"

Post by Lokiboy » Mon Sep 02, 2013 9:18 am

Added:
2WD engage and disengage
AIr/fuel screw Idle Drop adjustment
More info under Electrical - troubleshooting
Brakes stand alone section
Leak down test
2012 Technical bulletin of FD fill level
2011 Gear Up - "Erika"
Yorktown, VA

Mains: 127, Idle: 40, Needle: 1 shim
MKIII air filter
80,000 km and counting

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Post by Phesson » Sat Sep 28, 2013 8:08 pm

Thanks for compiling this list of valuable information.


Phesson

Here in the West Virginia hills.

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